of energy (information) to distant
The procedure for emitting / receiving of EM oscillations was discovered by
and called electromagnetic induction.
Faraday noted that when current is coupled to a primary coil, current is generated
in another secondary coil,
concentric and galvanically separated.
On decoupling, the sense of the current generated in the secondary coil is
It was the first device send / receiving EM oscillations between two coils
The induction phenomenon was then "translated" by James Clerk
Maxwell into a mathematical format.
Maxwell's equations have become a source of inspiration for using this phenomenon.
The idea of radio waves was later interfered with noise in telephone circuits
during elective discharges in the atmosphere.
So lightning, arc, it was emitting radio waves.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz succeed experimentally to transmit an electrical
arc from the primary coil
to a resonant circuit (secondary coil) placed further.
Jagadish Chandra Bose covers the resonant circuit with gunpowder and
kindle it from 23m away.
It was the first remote!
The essence of the emission phenomenon however, has remained unknown until
How emit EM oscillations the lightning, electric arc?
In lightning existing no "electric current", of electric tasks,
of electrons or ions, which moving along the lightning!
Physical motion occurs perpendicular to the direction of lightning! How?
The earth's electrical potential polarises the water drops.
The water drops form vertically a lot of polarized strings (electric currents).
These closed polarization and the magnetic fields around them,
provides the centripetal EM force, according to Ampere's rule.
The polarizations are thus pushed towards a common axis with the speed of
The movement of EM polarizations from different distances produces EM oscillations
with different frequencies by reversing the direction of orientation, as Faraday
By reversing the sense, the electric arc produces centrifugal EM force (antenna